The zeolite for water purifying
The zeolites are a new generation of filter materials.
This is a promising natural raw material, which is characterized by high technological parameters and negative effects absence even when applied on a large scale.
The zeolites are not water – swellable, are easily processed and fractioned, have absorption and shape selective properties, eversafe for living organisms, and therefore are of interest for use in all water purification processes.
Even today natural zeolite is successfully used in household filters. It is not only operates as a mechanical filter but also softens water, raises рН of water.
A number of positive points are noted by consumers: the zeolite sorbs bacteria and viruses, delicately affects the necessary microelements.
The zeolite for waste water depuration
The zeolite is best suited to purifying of drinking, process and waste water, pre-treatment in water treatment systems of TPP, GRES.
Especially destructive in waste water is ammonium nitrogen, which concentration overrun  is  equal to poison presence , fatal for all flesh. Material is an effective load for single – layer and multilayer filters.
Increased porosity (up to 56%) adds to the zeolite high hydrodynamic characteristics. Dirt capability of the filter allows, in comparison with the sand loading,  to increase the filter cycle in 6-12 times. It makes it possible to significantly safe on washing water in electric power during the washing process. At the same time discharge of the water washing by washing doesn’t exceed  10% of the volume in three years.
In addition, the zeolite, being a natural ion- exchange, allows to combine the processes of sorption and filtration. For example, the capacity for the ammonium ion Nh4+ is, on average, 700 mg.eq./kg, active sorption of metal cations Cs+ - Rb+ - K+ - Ba2+ - Sr+ - Na+ - Ca2+ - Fe3+ - Al3+ - Mg2+ - Li+.
The zeolite sorbs radionuclides Sr90, Cs137, Co60, Ca45, Cr51 in  solutions with a high content of other cations. When working it helps to reduce ion exchange resin contamination, increasing their service life.
At the same time, the low cost of natural zeolites determines its use possibility in sorption processes that don’t involve the zeolite regeneration.
The zeolite for gas purification and dehydration
Zeolite adsorb properties are used for gas burst clearing.  Especial zeolite effective use for sulfur dioxide and ammonia emission clearance in chemical industry (sulfur dioxide absorption is less than 15%).
According to research of the American corporation “Union Carbide”, natural zeolites appliance for that purpose is economically profitably.
Due to its good water sorption properties, the zeolite is used successfully in air drying system from water vapor in industrial plants (UOV-100 type air dryer station).
For gas treatment at mercury concentration 10 mg/m3 to sanitary norms 0.01 mg/m3, the contact time of exhaust gas with zeolized stocks is 0,05 sec. Waste water amine and tall oil containing are purified by zeolite on 90 — 99 %.
The zeolite in Chemistry and Petrochemistry
The zeolites are used as catalysts in chemical and cracking processes, as sorption separators (chromatography) of materials, for purifying, desalting and dehydration of oil, as dehumidifiers, as cleaners, deactivators, and disinfectants for chemicals and drain water, for radionuclides extraction.
Thus, the activated zeolite can be used in catalytic cracking.
In the West, synthetic zeolites are widely used for catalytic cracking. At the same time, activated zeolites are almost as good as synthetic zeolites at a much lower price.
The zeolite is widely used in analytical chemistry as zeolite-modified electrodes, for gas detection, for separation and concentration methods. It is a prolongator of chemical reagents action.
The zeolite, containing enough montmorillonite in its mineralogical composition, can be used as bentonite powders for well-drilling and as well as for drilling agents manufacture. We are currently working on drilling agents’ creation (buffer and backfill) in cooperation with LLC “VISMOS”, Ulyanovsk.
The zeolite in grout mix
Researches have shown that including natural zeolites in grout mix allows improving characteristics of the solution. Addition of the zeolites to the mixture makes it possible to improve the composition characteristic as follows:
- Reduce corrosivity by increasing the рН due to composition diluting with the basic oxides included into zeolite (Na2О; Аl2O3);
- Increase curing time due to deacidification and increasing the pH of gelling agent;
- Increase the adhesion of solid polymer to the rock surface, metal and cement due to the presence in the backfill composition metal cations Na+, Al3+ as well as silicon oxides SiO2, increasing the affinity of the composition to the rock and cement;
- Fully eliminate the shrinkage of the solid polymer which is explained by Orthosilicic acid H4SiO4 (in the interaction of hydroxochloride aluminum with the zeolites), which in acid medium binds and retains all the water, contained in the grout mix and released upon  carbamideformaldehyde solidification (KFZH).
Zeolite in the rubber industry
A group of scientists from Kazakhstan undertook a study on the application of the zeolite as filler in the rubber industry. At the present time the rubber industry faces difficult technical and economic problems, which consist in further improvement in the quality of production while simultaneously saving raw materials and improving working conditions.
The use of foreign made ingredients leads to an increase of product cost, because of transportation charges, customs duty and exchange rate differences.  This, in turn, impairs the ability to complete finished products. The use of zeolites would significantly reduce the cost of production and improve the quality of products.
As the zeolite is an ingredient of multifunctional action, it can simultaneously replace several powdered fillers and modifiers.  When storing , transportation, sieving, dosing and mixing powdered ingredients, and also in the process of the preparation of elastomeric compositions from them, a large amount of dust is released. It is known that dust causes industrial diseases among workers, causes diseases of the upper respiratory tract, irritates conjunctiva. Moreover, technical carbon causes lung cancer, so it has a fibrogenic effect. It is also proved that intrusion of dust of powdery toxic ingredients (technical carbon, kaolin, talc, white soot) through the skin is important in the impact of mutagens on the workers’ bodies in rubber industry, and also these chemicals are carcinogenic substances.
In addition to the negative effect on the human body, these ingredients, in particular, technical carbon, are explosive and fire hazardous and requires special features of transportation. One of the alternative ways of better working conditions and the environmental friendliness of production, in particular, the reduction of dustiness in industrial premises, is the use of zeolite.
Zeolite preparation technology for mixing consisted of the following steps: zeolite grinding, sieving and calcining.  Rubber compositions were prepared in main laboratory rubber mixers of the Shymkent tire plant. The zeolite was introduced into rubber composition at the 1 mixing stage. Standard formulas of rubber compositions were used where toxic ingredients were partially or completely replaced.
Based on the results of the research conducted it is found that when the several powdered ingredients are replaced by zeolite, ecological damage is eliminated and working conditions are improved, and the physical and mechanical properties of rubbers are improved, and in final outcome the quality of products is improved.
The zeolite in fire retardant
Natural zeolites can be used in the production of fire retardant coatings, fire safety devices of buildings constructions and production equipment.
Increase of zeolite proportion in the formulations of the fire extinguishing powder formulations reduces the caking of the composition. Replacement of aluminum hydroxide by zeolite in the recipe of VLKM "Moroz", leads to coating fire proof efficiency increase, which is explained by increase of a resistance of cocked cellular material to mechanical effects by a factor of 10.

It is effective to use the zeolite in packed fire prevention devices for their fire resistance increase. It is reviled by an experiment that the nozzle made of zeolite compared with a nozzle made of other mineral non-porous materials, increases operational life of fire-stop assembly in conditions of the fire effect by an average of 20 %.
 
The dynamics of the accumulation and removal of electrostatic charge during the zeolite grinding with the help of PMP generator was studied: it is found that the decrease of electrostatic charge during the zeolite grinding reaches up to 14% and is accompanied by a significant increase of a surface area.
Polymeric artificial leather and film materials
The zeolites are of use as a filler of all kinds of binding materials – artificial leather on fabric and paper, calico with nitrofinishing by replacing of 30 to 50 % of lithopone. Tests were carried out by Shchelkovo factory of “technical fabrics” jointly with All Union Research Institute of  ВНИИШИК.
A patent pattern and an addition to the process regulations have been developed.  It was considered expedient to introduce a formula using zeolites instead of part of lithopone in full production of these materials. With the release of 50 thousand running meters of table oil cloth, 30% of chalk filler was replaced by the zeolite. The material found high physical and mechanical performance and corresponded to GOST-24702-81.
Industrial experiments were carried out at the Kalinin plant of artificial leather and Leningrad Production Association of Artificial leather. The corresponding Technical Specification was developed: “Natural zeolites are the fillers of polymeric artificial leather and film materials”.
 
The production of artificial leather with vinyl finish is absolutely necessary to use zeolites instead of chalk, whose reserves are almost exhausted.
The use of zeolites:
  Application                                                         Сharacteristic
In petrochemistry  for desalting and dehydration of oil
Provides effective oil cleaning at low cost
For chemical agents utilization                                 has a high adsorption index
As a filler in production of industrial rubber, polymer products,  carbamide foam material, mastics
As a filler in production of industrial rubber, polymer products,  carbamide foam material, mastics
Cuts production costs, improves environmental friendliness of production and products, improves the quality of products
In power engineering for purification and regeneration of transformer oils
Provides effective oil cleaning at low cost
In production of paint materials
ncreases the adhesion, adhesive strength of paint, improves a hiding power, increases the film’s resistance to static effect of water, increases freezing resistance, reduces the film’s drying time, acts to rise characteristics of fire extinguishing powder paints
As odor filter
Thanks to its absorption properties, effectively removes odors from the air